Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Importance Of Freedom Of Speech - 1192 Words

The first amendment of the United States’ Bill of Rights states â€Å"Congress shall make no law... prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,†. Freedom of speech tends to be the most appreciated part of this amendment, while also causing the most anger. Most hate speech is protected under it, causing loads of controversy of the years. If the speech is not active fighting words threatening the livelihood of somebody, you’re allowed to say whatever you want. A landmark case in confirming this was the 2010 case of Snyder v. Phelps; the fight between the family of a soldier killed on duty, and America’s most hated family. The petitioner of the case was Albert Snyder, father of 20 year old Matthew A.Snyder†¦show more content†¦The church had dealt with many cases against them before, often using their own members as lawyers, but little did they know the case following this picket would be their biggest yet. Just as all cases do, the original case started at a District Court, specifically the United States District Court for the District of Maryland. Starting in 2007, Snyder’s original five claims against the defendant were defamation, publicity given to private life, intentional infliction of emotional distress, intrusion upon seclusion, and civil conspiracy. Defamation and publicity given to private life were immediately dismissed and only three remained. Eventually after testifying was over, the WBC owed $10.9 million to Albert (later changed to only half of that when the punitive damages were lowered to $2.1 million rather than the previous $8 million). Angered by the decision of the court, Fred Phelps appealed to the next court: the circuit court. In 2009, after looking over the results, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit took up the case and heard the appeal. Phelps argued, saying that his protest was protected under the freedom of speech clause. Surprisingly, th e circuit court completely reversed the ruling of the first court. Phelps had won his first case. The court claimed that â€Å"those statements were on matters of public concern, were not provably false, and were expressed solely through hyperbolic rhetoric.†, therefore it was protected by the firstShow MoreRelatedSpeech : Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1116 Words   |  5 PagesTopic/Title: The Importance of Freedom of Speech General Purpose: I want to inform my audience Specific Purpose: I want my audience to understand the importance of freedom of speech. Thesis: Freedom of speech is important because it allows new ideas to surface, encourages the development in social relationships to prosper, and it permits for the truth to prevail. Introduction A. Attention getter There is a famous written saying that adheres to the attitude of every important figure throughoutRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech979 Words   |  4 Pagesthe most cherished one: the freedom of speech. Freedom of speech gives citizens the right to express their own opinions publicly without government interference, violating laws, or inciting any kind of violence or rebellion. However, the first amendment does not mean anyone can simply say whatever they want. There are several topics that are strictly scrutinized by law and there are even some situations in which freedom of speech is lawfully restricted. Freedom of speech is an extremely important partRead MoreImportance Of Freedom Of Speech1455 Words   |  6 PagesIt is in these moments of confrontation that the importance of free speech becomes essential to finding a resolution that fits the needs and wants of the majority without disregarding the basic human rights of the minority being represented. Free speech sh ould have limits; this includes the use of inappropriate personal attacks, un-related subject matter/ lying, and inciting violence against others for their opinions and beliefs. Freedom of speech is one of the most important rights in society thatRead MoreFreedom Of Speech : The Importance Of The Freedom Of Speech1039 Words   |  5 PagesFreedom of speech is a right protected by the First Amendment. According to the administrative office of the United States Courts (n.d.), the First Amendment states that, â€Å"Congress shall make no law... abridging freedom of speech.† Freedom of speech is arguably one of the most cherished American values in the First Amendment. As defined by an online unabridged Dictionary (n.d.), The rights covered by freedom of speech include the right to express opinions publicly without governmental interferenceRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech878 Words   |  4 PagesFreedom of speech is a basic fundamental human right. Whether or not on a college campus, people (especially college students) should have the right to speak freely. Everyone does have the right to speak freely, because it is one of the twenty-seven amendments. Colleges all around the United States are now home to many restrictions on free speech. For example, the idea and use of â€Å"free speech zones† has made its way to colleges everywhere. A â€Å"free speech zone† is a sidewalk sized place where studentsRead MoreImportance Of Freedom Of Speech778 Words   |  4 Pagessomeone referring to Freedom of Speech, what comes to your mind? How far should Freedom of Speech go for you or others? And when you see someone practicing Freedom of Speech, do you actually support it? In today’s society, some of us forget what Freedom of Speech actually is and how far it is actually extended. Freedom of Speech means, the right to express any opinions without censorship or restraint. Freedom of Speech is protected under the First Amendment. Freedom of Speech includes but is notRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1526 Words   |  7 Pagesthem listed in our constitution in the 1st amendment is the right to freedom of speech. However, like many liberties, freedom of speech is not absolute under the supreme law of land. What this means is that yes we do have freedom of speech, but it is not protected by the government if it includes obscenity, defamation, fraud, incitement, true threats and speech integral to already criminal conduct. White, K. (2017, June 08) Speech is an important part of our democracy, it gives us the right to speakRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1394 Words   |  6 Pagesconstitution states â€Å"Congress shall make no law [...] abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and t o petition the Government for a redress of grievances.† However, the right to freedom of speech has limits, including violence, inciting a riot, libel or slander and yelling fire in a theatre. At a private company, such as the NFL, there are even more limits to this freedom, depending on the organization’s terms and conditions and any contractsRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech956 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussed on campus to protect their students, but this hinders the quality of the students learning. Public college campuses should not safeguard student’s free speech by providing safe spaces, presenting trigger warnings, or controlling who speaks on campus.   Ã‚  Ã‚   All students attending public colleges should be allowed the freedom of speech and not be shielded from what college officials deem necessary to censor. Colleges that provide safe spaces, physical places students can go to openly discuss controversialRead MoreThe Importance Of Freedom Of Speech1374 Words   |  6 Pages Freedom of speech is defined as â€Å"the political right to communicate ones opinions and ideas. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.†. It is a constitutional right under the first amendment. However, does freedom of speech really mean freedom of speech, or is it limited? Freedom of speech is the ability to speak without censorship or limitation. Also called freedom

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Differences Between Television And Television - 702 Words

After going over how meaning is made in television, in chapter seven, Mittell goes over how these meanings on television can impact the way that we, as viewers, think about our lives and the world. Mittell goes over the two most popular approaches that are usually used to understand the relationship of the meanings conveyed through television and the real world, as a way to escape the world and as a reflection of the world. The escapist and direct reflection approaches, according to Mittell, are not accurate. The escapist approach, which states that people watch television to escape from real life, falls short when considering the news, sports, talk shows, and other reality television programs due to their connection to real life. The direct reflection approach, which states that programming on television is true to viewers’ lives, fails to take into account fantasy programs and the representation distortion that happens in non-fiction programs. Mittell argues that the best wa y to understand the relationship between television meanings and the way television viewers see the world is to use the refraction approach. The refraction approach states that television meanings refract the world, where programs alter the world around it and its meanings through particular techniques and forms like cinematography and editing. An important term in Mittell’s refraction approach is representation. Mittell defines representation as, â€Å"taking facets of the real world and presenting themShow MoreRelatedDifferences Between Television And Television1213 Words   |  5 PagesSince it’s inception television has been one of the most powerful tools for advertisement in the United States. Advertisers, of course, want to market to the biggest audiences possible. This market has been dominated by the big five broadcast networks, and while they still hold the crown, their grip is beginning to weaken, specifically, within the genre of procedural dramas. America ’s appetite is beginning to move in a new direction and the regulations imposed on broadcast stations are becoming increasinglyRead MoreDifferences Between Television And Television1346 Words   |  6 PagesShould Know About TV Aerials|Learn More About TV Aerials} {In the modern world, televisions are almost a necessity to keep us informed about daily happenings in the regions where we come from and for entertainment.|Today, televisions are so important in our lives that they are almost necessities because they keep us up to date with news from our regions and they offer great entertainment.|In our world today, televisions have gained so much regard that they are almost being termed a necessity becauseRead MoreDifference Between Television And Television Show1202 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"tweens† (kids between 8 and 13), which medium would you choose? What about for men in their 30s? Men in their 60s? In which medium would you advertise if you ran one of your city’s performing arts centers? Different age groups require different mediums for the marketers to reach these segments. The first segment is â€Å"tweens†. Today the tweens age group watches more television than any other age group. At that age they do not understand the main difference between watching the television show and theRead MoreDifferences Between Traditional Television Channel And Online Tv Channel945 Words   |  4 PagesCompare and contrast the similarities and differences between a traditional broadcast TV channel (BBC) and an online TV channel (YouTube and Netflix). Source: ocuments%2FUseful%20Reports%20for%20Year%2012%20Media%2FTV%20Viewing%20Habits%20%2D%20UK%20%2D%20October%202 016%281%29%2Epdfparent=%2Fsites%2Fyear12%2FShared%20Documents%2FUseful%20Reports%20for%20Year%2012%20MediaRead MoreSimilarities and Differences between the American Television Shows American Idol and X-Factor1269 Words   |  5 Pagesaction. Both shows do a great job articulating this concept in a manner that is engaging and though provoking. However, American Idol and X-Factor have distinct differences that make them unique in their application of this concept. Through this document I aim to juxtapose the different shows in regards to their similarities and differences. Similarity: Aspirational Component American Idol and X-Factor both have a more aspiration component to their shows. The show garners much of its appeal fromRead More Children And Television Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pagesstrangers enter the home everyday...through the television. Television is in 98% of North American homes and the average Canadian child watches four hours of television every day. Most parents do not realize that their children are watching violence-ridden television programs and that by the age of 18 the average North American child will have viewed over 200,000 acts of television violence. Children should not be allowed to watch violent television programs because children are easily desensitizedRead MoreTelevision And Its Impact On The Production Of American Identities1191 Words   |  5 Pagesidentities than the television. Since its inception, television has played a crucial role in shaping, forming, and producing a distinctly American â€Å"national imagery† of acceptable normalcy, esp ecially in regards to African Americans and their shifting television portrayals. In addition, Herman S. Gray argues in his article Television and the Politics of Difference that the creation and delineation of difference is an essential aspect of television, and that this production of difference is perhaps mostRead MorePortrayal Of Gender Stereotypes Of Children s Television Commercials1639 Words   |  7 PagesStereotypes in Children’s Television Commercials. Liuyi Bian University of Florida Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in gender portrayal in children’s television commercials. The hypothesis that stated, if an observed television program is determined to be intended for girls, then the colors used in the commercials would be predominantly intended for girls, is strongly supported. To do content analysis, we first gathered a sample of 50 television commercials airedRead MoreJohn Romanos Coming Home to Television: A Review1229 Words   |  5 Pagesmasses in popular television in Coming Home to Television. The essay addresses the differences between what is considered highbrow versus what is considered lowbrow art and creative expression, especially in the realm of literature. Ironically, Romano writes about television from a scholarly perspective. He is only somewhat sarcastic when Romano notes that the transition from academia to television script writing was a step down. Walter Karp does not address the differences between writing for schoolRead MoreThe Media And Television Influences People s View Of Reality1489 Words   |  6 PagesThe theory that suggests the media and television influences people’s view of reality. George Gerbner and Larry Gross and a few other associates developed cultivation theory in 1976. â€Å"Cultivation Theory postulates that as individuals are exposed to more of a certain kind of television programs, each exposure plants sees that grow into a perspective that is largely influenced by the themes presented in the programs,† (Gerbner p.15). There are different assumptions regarding the Cultivation Theory

Attacking Wifi Nets with Traffic Injection Free Essays

string(68) " or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both\." I am very much thankful to him. I benefited a lot discussing with him. I am also thankful to my parents who encouraged me and provided such a motivation, so I became able to perform this. We will write a custom essay sample on Attacking Wifi Nets with Traffic Injection or any similar topic only for you Order Now I am also thankful to all my friends and those who helped me directly or indirectly in completion of my project. CONTENTS †¢Introduction †¢Crime Definition †¢Laws that have been violated †¢Possible Punishments (IT ACT + INTERNATIONAL LAWS) †¢Unlawful Losses and Gains †¢Working of Attacks †¢Description of Tools INTRODUCTION This term paper is based on â€Å"attacking wifi nets with traffic injection† also nown as packet injection which simply means the hacking of wireless networks with different techniques to send extra amount of traffic (packets, frames, duplicate copies) on a network by which a hacker can able to access the information and identity that a client is using. Some techniques are wireless network sniffing, DOS (denial of service attack), Man in the middle attack etc. Attacks on wireless LANs (WLAN’s) and wireless-enabled laptops are a quick and easy way for hackers to steal data and enter the corporate network. Many types of tools are used to perform hacking. Some of them are named as aircrack-ng, airjack etc. thts paper will later give brief information on tools used , working of tools ,losses and gains with hacking etc. These type of attacks are known as INTEGRITY attacks. Wireless networks broadcast their packets using radio frequency or optical wavelengths. A modern laptop computer can listen in. Worse, an attacker can manufacture new packets on the fly and persuade wireless stations to accept his packets as legitimate. We already know 802. 11 networks are weak. Open networks are prone to any well-known LAN perimeter attack WEP is vulnerable. Traffic injection has changed things like †¢Increased DoS (denial of service) capabilities †¢Dramatically decreased WEP cracking achievement time †¢Allows traffic tampering †¢Allows stations attacks CRIME DEFINITION Cyber Crime –A crime where the computer is used as a tool or target. Cyber crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cyber crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hate crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts are considered to be cyber crimes when the illegal activities are committed through the use of a computer and the Internet. Hacking – Traffic injection attacks comes under hacking. It is defined as whomever with the intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause wrongful loss or damage to the public or any person destroys or deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means, commits hacking. Hacking may also occur when a person willfully, knowingly, and without authorization or without reasonable grounds to believe that he or she has such authorization, destroys data, computer programs, or supporting documentation residing or existing internal or external to a computer, computer system, or computer network. Besides the destruction of such data, hacking may also be defined to include the disclosure, use or taking of the data commits an offense against intellectual property. This paper is a survey of wireless attack tools focusing on 802. 11 and Bluetooth. It includes attack tools for three major categories: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Confidentiality attack tools focus on the content of the data and are best known for encryption cracking. Integrity attacks tools focus on the data in transmission and include frame insertion, man in the middle, and replay attacks. Finally, availability attack tools focus on Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Law That Have Been Violated The laws that have been violated are section 43,65 and 66 of IT ACT 2000. Section 43 of IT ACT 2000, defines as If any person without permission of the owner or any other person who is in charge of a computer, computer system or computer network, — (a) Accesses or secures access to such computer, computer system or computer Network; (b) Downloads, copies or extracts any data, computer data base or information from such computer, computer system or computer network including information or data held or stored in any removable storage medium; c) Introduces or causes to be introduced any computer contaminant or computer virus into any computer, computer system or computer network; (d) Damages or causes to be damaged any computer, computer system or computer network, data, computer data base or any other programs residing in such computer, computer system or computer network; (e) Disrupts or causes disruption of any computer, computer system or computer network; (f) Denies or caus es the denial of access to any person authorized to access any computer, computer system or computer network by any means; g) Provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access to a computer, computer system or computer network in contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made there under; (h) Charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by tampering with or manipulating any computer, computer system, or computer network, Section 65 of IT ACT 2000, defines as, Tampering with computer source documents Whoever knowingly or intentionally conceals, destroys or alters or intentionally or knowingly causes another to conceal, destroy or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer programs, computer system or computer network, when the computer source code is required to be kept or maintained by law for the time being in force, shall be punishable with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both. You read "Attacking Wifi Nets with Traffic Injection" in category "Papers" Section 66 of IT ACT 2000, defines as, (1) Whoever with the intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause rongful loss or damage to the public or any person destroys or deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means, commits hacking. (2) Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to tw o lakh rupees, or with both. POSSIBLE PUNISHMENTS (IT ACT + International laws) Cyber crime is a type of crime that not only destroys the security system of a country but also its financial system. One supporter of legislation against cyber crime, Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), stated, â€Å"Our mouse can be just as dangerous as a bullet or a bomb. † Cyber attackers should be penalized and punished severely and most cyber crimes have penalties reflecting the severity of the crime committed. Although in the past many laws against cyber crimes were insufficient, law enforcement agencies and governments have recently proposed many innovative plans for fighting cyber crimes. Punishment Cybercrime must be dealt with very seriously because it causes a lot of damage to businesses and the actual punishment should depend on the type of fraud used. The penalty for illegally accessing a computer system ranges from 6 months to 5 years. The penalty for the unofficial modification on a computer ranges from 5 to 10 years. Other penalties are listed below: Telecommunication service theft: The theft of telecommunication services is a very common theft and is punished with a heavy fine and imprisonment. Communications intercept crime: This is a Class-D crime which is followed by a severe punishment of 1 to 5 years of imprisonment with a fine. Other cyber crimes like telecommunication piracy, offensive material dissemination, and other cyber frauds also belong to this category. Information Technology Act-2000: According to this act, different penalties are available for different crimes. Some of the penalties are as follows: Computer source document tampering: The person who changes the source code on the website or any computer program will get a punishment up to 3 years of imprisonment or fine. Computer hacking: The individual who hacks the computer or computer devices will get an imprisonment up to 3 years or a fine. Government protected system: An act of trying to gain access to a system which is a protected system by the government, will result in imprisonment for 10 years and a heavy fine. The introduction of such penalties have lead to a drastic reduction in the cyber crime rates as more and more criminals are becoming aware of the penalties related to them. Spreading the word about the penalties of cyber crime can serve as a deterrent against such crime. Penalties relating to cyber crime will vary depending on the country and legislation in place. Punishments according to IT ACT 2000 The person who commits the crime shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation not exceeding one crore rupees to the person so affected according to section 43 of IT ACT. The person who commits the crime shall be punishable with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both according to section 65 of IT ACT. Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both according to section 66 of IT ACT 2000 INTERNATIONAL LAWS In USA section 18 U. S. C.  § 1030 A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and (B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both, i n the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under this section, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; In Canada The person who commits the crime is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction. UNLAWFUL LOSSES AND GAINS Losses due to hacking Hackers targeted major companies including Sony, RSA Security, and Citigroup, but also governmental websites and smaller firms. Many companies could have prevented the attacks. Because of their vulnerabilities, they not only lost money, but also risked losing clients, prestige and market share. Multitudes of people were affected by their security breaches Recent reports showed hackers earned $12. billion in 2011, mainly by spamming, phishing, and online frauds. Some companies have made their financial losses public, while others chose not to disclose them. Here’s a top 5 of the declared losses caused by hackings from last year until present. Undeclared losses may even exceed these ones. 1. $171 million – Sony Hacked in April to June 2 011, Sony is by far the most famous recent security attack. After its Playstation network was shut down by LulzSec, Sony reportedly lost almost $171 million. The hack affected 77 million accounts and is still considered the worst gaming community data breach ever. Attackers stole valuable information: full names, logins, passwords, e-mails, home addresses, purchase history, and credit card numbers. 2. $2. 7 million – Citigroup Hacked in June 2011, Citigroup was not a difficult target for hackers. They exploited a basic online vulnerability and stole account information from 200,000 clients. Because of the hacking, Citigroup said it lost $2. 7 million. Just a few months before the attack, the company was affected by another security breach. It started at Epsilon, an email marketing provider for 2,500 large companies including Citigroup. Specialists estimated that the Epsilon breach affected millions of people and produced an overall $4 billion loss. 3. $2 million – Stratfor Last Christmas wasn’t so joyful for Stratfor Global Intelligence. Anonymous members hacked the US research group and published confidential information from 4,000 clients, threatening they could also give details about 90,000 credit card accounts. The hackers stated that Stratfor was â€Å"clueless†¦when it comes to database security†. According to the criminal complaint, the hack cost Stratfor $2 million. 4. $2 million – ATamp;T The US carrier was hacked last year, but said no account information was exposed. They said they warned one million customers about the security breach. Money stolen from the hacked business accounts was used by a group related to Al Qaeda to fund terrorist attacks in Asia. According to reports, refunding costumers cost ATamp;T almost $2 million. 5. $1 million – Fidelity Investments, Scottrade, E*Trade, Charles Schwab The most recent declared losses were in a brokerage scam. A Russian national was charged in the US with $1. 4 million in computer and hacking crimes. $1 million was stolen from stock brokerages Fidelity Investments, Scottrade, E*Trade, and Charles Schwab. The rest of the money was taken from fraudulent tax refunds, with the stolen identities of more than 300 people. Gains To Hackers * To use your computer: * as an Internet Relay Chat (IRC) server – hackers wouldn’t want to discuss openly about their activities on their ‘own’ servers * as Storage for Illicit Material (ex. pirated software, pirated music, pornography, hacking tools etc) * as part of a DDoS Attack – where many computers are controlled by hackers in an attempt to cause resource starvation on a victim’s computers or networks * To steal services and/or valuable files For thrill and excitement * To get even – maybe an IT staff who was terminated, or other parties you’ve ‘wronged’ * As a publicity stunt – an example of which was reported in 1998 by Jim Hu in MTV â€Å"hack† backfires * Knowledge/Experiment/Ethical – some hackers probe a computer system to find its security vulnerabilities and then inform the system administrator to help improve their security * Another possible reason is that the hackers might suffer from a disease called Asperger syndrome (AS). They are people who are very good with numbers and at focusing on a problem for a very long period of time, but are not good in social relationships. How AS can possibly be linked to hacking behavior was discussed more thoroughly by M. J. Zuckerman in his ‘USA Today’ article, What fuels the mind of a hacker? * Curiosity * To spy on friends, family members or even business rivals * Prestige – bragging rights in their social circle (particularly if they’ve hacked high-profile sites or systems) * Intellectual Challenge Money – although most hackers are not motivated by financial gain; many professional criminals make money by using hacking techniques either to * set up fake e-commerce sites to collect credit card details * gain entry to servers that contain credit cards details * engage in other forms of credit card fraud WORKING OF ATTACKS Before studying about how traffic injection attacks works there are some basic terms we shoud have to know WEP Wir ed Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a shared-secret key encryption system used to encrypt packets transmitted between a station and an AP. The WEP algorithm is intended to protect wireless communication from eavesdropping. A secondary function of WEP is to prevent unauthorized access to a wireless network. WEP encrypts the payload of data packets. Management and control frames are always transmitted in the clear. WEP uses the RC4 encryption algorithm. The shared-secret key is either 40 or 104 bits long. The key is chosen by the system administrator. This key must be shared among all the stations and the AP using mechanisms that are not specified in the IEEE 802. 11. FRAMES Both the station and AP radiate and gather 802. 1 frames as needed. The format of frames is illustrated below. Most of the frames contain IP packets. The other frames are for the management and control of the wireless connection. There are three classes of frames. The management frames establish and maintain communications. These are of Association request, Association response, Reassociation request, Reassociation response, Probe request, Probe respo nse, Beacon, Announcement traffic indication message, Disassociation, Authentication, Deauthentication types. The SSID is part of several of the management frames. Management messages are always sent in the clear, even when link encryption (WEP or WPA) is used, so the SSID is visible to anyone who can intercept these frames. Authentication Authentication is the process of proving identity of a station to another station or AP. In the open system authentication, all stations are authenticated without any checking. A station A sends an Authentication management frame that contains the identity of A, to station B. Station B replies with a frame that indicates recognition, addressed to A. In the closed network architecture, the stations must know the SSID of the AP in order to connect to the AP. The shared key authentication uses a standard challenge and response along with a shared secret key. Traffic injection quick HOWTO †¢1 Insert adapter †¢2 Load driver and activate adapter †¢3 Set driver into monitor mode (real 802. 11 mode) †¢4 Set appropriate channel †¢5 Open PF PACKET/RAW socket on interface (Linux only) †¢6 Use your socket and play †¢ Still, you need a 802. 11 stack over your socket and/or good libs †¢ and tools so you can communicate WORKING – This phase of term paper describes the working of attack by using one tool called INJECTION WIZARD Injection Wizard is an application for injecting traffic into WEP-protected Wi-Fi networks, like aireplay-ng, but it’s much more easy to use and it can work with worse conditions (for example, more interferences, weaker transmitted/received signals, more restricted access points, etc). The higher the traffic of the network, the earlier we will be able to crack a WEP key with tools like aircrack-ng, airsnort, dwepcrack, weplab, WEPAttack, WEPCrack, etc. However, injecting traffic is not easy because you must build or capture a frame that causes a response frame in any other station (that is, a wireless node). This application carries out automatically all the needed actions to build a frame that causes a response in other station. These actions can be summarized in the following sequence of steps: 1. The application scans Wi-Fi networks and shows a list of WEP-protected networks, then it allows the user to select one of them. 2. It joins the selected network and monitors that network in order to find a data frame. 3. It tries to extract a keystream prefix from the captured frame and then it tries to extend the keystream up to 40 bytes by means of the W. A. Arbaugh’s inductive chosen plaintext attack. 4. It tries to find a host (for example, a connected computer, a network device, etc), which has an IP address belonging to a predefined range, by injecting forged ARP packets. 5. After finding an active host, it injects ARP packets targeted at that host. Some of the benefits of this application are easiness of use (due to its graphical interface, automatic operation, etc) androbustness (detection/management of network disconnections, repetition of failed actions, etc). Moreover, the Arbaugh’s inductive attack can be performed by any Wi-Fi interface supporting injection in monitor mode, because the interface driver doesn’t need any additional patch as it’s usual to happen with the Bittau’s fragmentation attack. Besides its higher applicability, this attack is generally more reliable than Chop-Chop attack for recovering a keystream of a given size, because it doesn’t have to inject any frame larger than needed. This application is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 (read the license. tm file for more details) and comes with absolutely no warranty. The author assumes no responsibility derived from the use or the distribution of this program. The copyright of this application is owned by Fernando Pablo Romero Navarro (May 2010). Injection Wizard has made use of (with convenient modifications) the following free software applications: * scapy (version 2. 0. 1), distributed under the license: GNU GPL version 2. Copyright: Philippe Biondi,2009 (http://www. secdev. org/projects/scapy). * python-wifi (version 0. 3. 1), distributed under the license: GNU LGPL version 2. 1. Copyright: Roman Joost, 2004-2008 Software Requirements For the client application (graphical interface): †¢Any system with a recent Java virtual machine: JRE version 1. 6 or later. For the server application: * A Linux box with a recent kernel, so it should support Wireless Extensions version 22 or later (since kernel version 2. 6. 21) and the mac80211 stack for Wi-Fi interfaces (since kernel version 2. 6. 24, it is supported by many Wi-Fi adapter drivers). * A Wi-Fi network interface driver supporting injection in monitor mode (sometimes it’s required to patch the driver for supporting this feature). The iw system command, if it’s not provided by your Linux distribution you can get it by installing the aircrack-ng package or by compiling the source code that can be downloaded from: http://wireless. kernel. org/download/iw. * A Python interpreter with version 2. 5, later versions might also work. Instructions 1. Uncompress the injwiz. zip file. 2. Copy the client directory on a system with a Java virtual machine accessible from the command path (for example, launch a shell, enter the client directory, execute the command: java -version and check the command outputs the JRE version number). . Copy the server directory on a Linux box. If the client and server directories weren’t copied on the same machine, you should edit the runserver. sh script (in the server directory) and replace the IP address: 127. 0. 0. 1 with the IP address of the Linux box’s network interface that is attached to the same network that the client machine (i. e. the computer that hosts the clientdirectory). 4. Enter the server directory and run the script: . /runserver. sh (the Python interpreter should be accessible from the command path. You can check this by running: ython -V from the command line and verifying that the interpreter version is showed). 5. On the client machine, enter the client directory and run either the script: . /runclient. sh (for Linux or Unix-like operating systems providing a shell compatible with the Bourne shell and whose path for the executable file is: /bin/sh) orrunclient. bat (for Windows). DESCRIPTION OF TOOLS The tools used for packet injection purpose s are divided into two categories Hardware and software 1. Software Serious hackers usually use Linux-based open source penetration test tools from which to launch their attacks. This section details some of the more popular tools that can be used to search out and hack wifi networks. †¢Aircrack-ng: This suite of tools includes 802. 11 WEP and WPA-PSK key cracking programs that can capture wireless packets and recover keys once enough information been captured. Aircrack-ng supports newer techniques that make WEP cracking much faster. This software has been downloaded over 20,000 times. †¢Airjack: An 802. 11 packet injection tool, Airjack was originally used as a development tool to capture and inject or replay packets. In particular, Airjack can be used to inject forged deauthentication packets, a fundamental technique used in many denial-of-service and Man-in-the-Middle attacks. Repeatedly injecting deauthentication packets into a network wreaks havoc on the connections between wireless clients and access points. †¢AirSnort: AirSnort is wireless LAN (CLAN) tool which recovers WEP encryption keys. AirSnort works by passively monitoring transmissions, and then computing the encryption key when enough packets have been gathered. After that point, all data sent over the network can be decrypted into plain text using the cracked WEP key. †¢Cain ;amp; Able: This is a multi-purpose tool that can intercept network traffic, using information contained in those packets to crack encrypted passwords using dictionary, brute-force and cryptanalysis attack methods, record VoIP conversations, recover wireless network keys, and analyze routing protocols. Its main purpose is the simplified recovery of passwords and credentials. This software has been downloaded over 400,000 times. CommView for WiFi: This commercial product is designed for capturing and analyzing wifi network packets. CommView for WiFi uses a wireless adapter to capture, decode, and analyze packets sent over a single channel. It allows hackers to view the list of network connections and vital IP statistics and examine individual packets. †¢ElcomSoft Wireless Security Auditor: This is an all-in-one cracking solution that automatically locates wirel ess networks, intercepts data packets, and uses cryptanalysis techniques to crack WPA/WPA2 PSKs. This software displays all available wireless networks, identified by channel number, AP MAC address, SSID, speed, load, and encryption parameters. While these capabilities can be found in open source tools, ElcomSoft provides a more polished product for professional use by wireless security auditors. †¢Ettercap: Ettercap can be used to perform man-in-the-middle attacks, sniff live connections, and filter intercepted packets on the fly. It includes many features for network and host analysis. This shareware has been downloaded nearly 800,000 times. Firesheep: This is a plug-in to the Firefox browser that allows the hacker to capture SSL session cookies sent over any unencrypted network (like an open wifi network) and use them to possibly steal their owner’s identities. It is extremely common for websites to protect user passwords by encrypting the initial login with SSL, but then never encrypt anything else sent after login, which leaves the cookie (and the user) vulnerab le to â€Å"sidejacking. † When a hacker uses Firesheep to grab these cookies, he may then use the SSL-authenticated session to access the user’s account. Hotspotter: Like KARMA, Hotspotter is another wireless attack tool that mimics any access point being searched for by nearby clients, and then dupes users into connecting to it instead. †¢IKECrack: This is an open source IPsec VPN authentication cracking tool which uses brute force attack methods to analyze captured Internet Key Exchange (IKE) packets to find valid VPN user identity and secret key combinations. Once cracked, these credentials can be used to gain unauthorized access to an IPsec VPN. KARMA: This evil twin attack listens to nearby wireless clients to determine the name of the network they are searching for and then pretends to be that access point. Once a victim connects to a KARMA evil twin, this tool can be used to redirect web, FTP, and email requests to phone sites in order to steal logins and passwords. †¢Kismet: K ismet takes an intrusion detection approach to wireless security, and can be used to detect and analyze access points within radio range of the computer on which it is installed. This software reports SSIDs (Service Set Identifiers – used to distinguish one wireless network from another) advertised by nearby access points, whether or not the access point is using WEP, and the range of IP addresses being used by connected clients. †¢NetStumbler: This tool turns any WiFi-enabled Windows laptop into an 802. 11 network detector. NetStumbler and dozens of similar â€Å"war driving† programs can be used with other attack tools to find and hack into discovered wifi networks. †¢WireShark: WireShark is a freeware LAN analyzer that can be used to passively capture 802. 11 packets being transmitted over a wifi network. This software has been downloaded millions of times. 2. Hardware †¢For hackers that prefer a turn-key package, there are also hardware wireless hacking tools available. We’ve highlighted one called WiFi Pineapple. It’s a simple, small, portable device that can be carried into any hotspot and used to attract any laptop trying to find a wifi access point. The Pineapple uses a technique called an Evil Twin attack. Hackers have used tools like KARMA to do the same thing for years, but with Pineapple, now you can buy a piece of hardware for only $100 that allows you to become a hacker without downloading or installing any software. Here’s what their website says: â€Å"Of course all of the Internet traffic flowing through the pineapple such as e-mail, instant messages and browser sessions are easily viewed or even modified by the pineapple holder. † REFERENCES http://www. cse. wustl. edu/~jain//cse571-07/ftp/wireless_hacking/index. html http://www. cs. wright. edu/~pmateti/InternetSecurity/Lectures/WirelessHacks/Mateti-WirelessHacks. htm#_Toc77524642 http://www. webopedia. com/TERM/C/cyber_crime. html http://www. wi-fiplanet. com/tutorials/article. php/3568066 file:///C:/Users/jsk/Desktop/Wireless%20Hackers%20101. htm How to cite Attacking Wifi Nets with Traffic Injection, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Procedures of the Recruitment Process

Attracting: Recruiting Selection The impact of increased global competitiveness on human resources is notable. Presently, organizations engage the services of highly skilled and experienced personnel. Consequently, this has immensely impacted on the labor market.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Procedures of the Recruitment Process specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recruitment processes have become more strategic and reformed. The human resources department plays a significant role. Generally, talent, expertise and leadership qualities have gained importance (ARMSTRONG 2010, p. 12). The processes of attracting, recruitment and selection are important. The application of strategic and comprehensive processes enables employers to acquire quality human resource. The potential employees also have the capacity to identify the best employers within the market. It is important to note the impacts of increased competitiv eness within the human resource. Workers have also developed interests on capacity building, quality experience and improvement. Organizations must determine the factors that may attract potential and effectively performing workers. Therefore, they must be smart while presenting the available employment opportunities. The potential workers must also strive to learn the ways of detecting the best employers. Organizations have applied different strategies to ensure that their opportunities are competitive. For instance, providing good wages to the workers have frequently been used (ASWATHAPPA 2005, p. 8).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The employing organizations have also used other competitive reward and benefit schemes. These have considerably led to increased applications for various available job opportunities. It is upon the human resource and relevant line managers to use a strategic selection procedure. Evidently, it is notable that quality management is widely applicable in the recruitment processes. Personally, I have developed a desire to work within organizations that value employee welfare. A majority of employees indicate that appropriate values must be well articulated within the organization’s mission and vision statements (DALE DALE 2003, p. 22). The type and quality of leadership also have great importance. This is because workers would want to serve in an environment that offers explicit human liberties and respect. These issues must be explicitly communicated as part of the job advertisement. According to most investigations, quality processes within an organization begins during the recruitment stage. This factor also helps the organization to perform effectively. Attractive job advertisements must be comprehensive in communicating the mission and cultures of the particular organization. Additionally, they must be inclusive in nature. This means that the job advertisements must not be discriminative. There must be consideration of different groups of people, gender, cultures, race and religious beliefs. Indeed, with the increasingly liberal society, there is more need for institutions to avoid discrimination. Presently, employees and lobby groups value the respect of human rights and dignity. A positive culture and non-discriminative policies will increase employee attraction.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Procedures of the Recruitment Process specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizations must also recognize that an inclusive approach broaden the pool of viable recruits. Employees have continually recognized the significance of comprehensive communication of the job expectations. Indicatively, a comprehensive communication of job specification and requirement provides room for a cost and benefit analysis (COOPER ROBERTSON 2001, p. 19). This is normally done by the potential recruits. Adequate research is necessary for knowing the factors that attract potential employees. From a personal perspective, I would admit that employees have variable interests. Because we are human, there is possibility of existence of disparities on the various appealing factors. This is notwithstanding other considerations such as the remuneration package. Perhaps, this explains why employees variably identify with certain organizational cultures and ideologies. A successful recruitment process must have several considerations. Most organizations have recognized the importance of training and development. Like many potential employees argue, there is an urgent need for capacity building. This might be the reason why most workers value the opportunities for apprenticeship offered in various organizations. These strategic and contemporary issues must be well communicated within the job advertisements. Another important considerati on during job advertisement is the need for competitive remuneration. Ideally, employees also appreciate and admire working within competitive environments (ARMSTRONG 2010, p. 18).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As an employee, serving within a competitive environment would enhance my critical and analytical skills. This is very important for capacity development and general experience. Therefore, organizations must promise enjoyable work environment to the potential recruits. Other vital considerations within the process may include flexible hours at work. The observation of recent employee concerns such as quality of work life and work-life balance is important. The application process must be very straight forward. This minimizes the inconveniences and increases the level of employee confidence on the recruitment procedure. The employees must also be keen in identifying potential employers. Generally, to avoid cases of malpractices and confusion, they must consider a comprehensive policy communication. Presently, it is important to conduct an investigative survey on the background of the organization desired. This is to enable the recruits to familiarize themselves with the relevant orga nizational policies, history and mission. An employee must be well informed on the nature of operations of the intended employer. Seemingly, organizations have critical roles in ensuring the recruitment process is not flawed. Although the human resource might have important roles, the involvement of the line managers in the recruitment process is also crucial (CATANO 2009, p.34). Particularly, this applies for most for technical jobs. This is because they test the competencies of the employees in implementing the technical processes of an organization. Description of the job requirements and specification is important. There is an element of attraction when these factors are integrated within the recruitment process. Organizations with constructive brand and thriving business image have the capacity to attract skilled potential recruits (ASWATHAPPA 2005, p.21). There are other unique incentives that when communicated effectively, may enhance the process of recruitment. For instance, as an employee, I would personally prefer organizations that communicate unique services to their potential workers. Some of the incentives that most workers have admitted to appeal for are observable. These might include services such as gym, health insurance waivers as well as childcare support services. Organizations are advised to consider the provisions communicated by their potential competitors. It is clear that through this observation, the organization may attract the best. Providing a distinct array of benefits relative to that of potential competitors enables the recruiting organizations to get the brightest and more skilled workforce. On the other hand, this initiative also helps to offer the potential employees with a chance to work within highly competitive and reputable organizations. Positive reputation and business or organizational brand is vital for successful performance and efficiency. The development of a good employer brand also remains critical. This is beca use most present employees like associating with positive brand images. There are systematic procedures in the recruitment process. For effective employment relationship, potential employers must conduct a job examination. This helps to ensure that they are aware of the requirements. It is normally associated with the necessary skills, familiarity and competencies (COOPER ROBERTSON 2001, p. 49). The kind of employment to be provided must also be considered and communicated appropriately. Organizations must ensure that the various job descriptions and the selection methodologies are precise. These should also be up to date and modified whenever such needs arise. Organizations must also determine the processes applicable in the assessment of all potential recruit’s suitability for the described job. There are basic considerations to be taken in notice. Indicatively, it is evident that potential recruits presently demand to know the specific criteria for short listing and inter viewing. A transparent recruitment process must publicly state its disclaimer and policies regarding corruption issues. Emerging employee requirements or demands must also be met during the recruitment process. For instance, in my past applications, I have always sought to conduct follow ups. I have also demanded to know the official interview and the reporting dates for successful employees. For effective performance, organizations must develop their personal recruitment plans (COOPER ROBERTSON 2001, p. 54). This explains the methodologies for informing the general public or potential candidates of the basic minimal requirements for the advertised position. An informed short listing process is applicable. In addition, the importance of application of rational criteria for sidelining the less qualified applicants must be considered. Notably, the present technological advancements have had significant impacts on communication. These have also remarkably influenced most organizationa l processes including recruitment (DALE DALE 2003, p. 38). The increase in social networking technology has enhanced the processes and channels that organizations might use in posting their job vacancies. Generally, the contemporary employees would prefer associating with organizations that have a remarkable appreciation of the networking technology. Apart from these, the utilization of the various current media channels by potential employers increases the base for acquisition of skilled workers. There are various media channels through which organizations might advertise their job vacancies. However, care must be taken to choose the most popular and frequently accessed media for the advertisement. The recruitment process is a comprehensive undertaking that requires an integrated approach. Particularly, this is evident if the strategic organizational objectives are to be attained. The importance of carrying out a job analysis by the organization and the potential employee is emine nt. The initiative enables both parties to know how the opportunity can contribute to accomplishing their plans (DALE DALE 2003, p. 42). In case of an organization, the opportunity is analyzed versus the projected achievements on the goals. The potential employees are also able to examine how this offer would assist them in attaining their professional and career goals. From my experience, it is clear that remuneration may at times be a weaker factor for consideration. This is because an employee must consider other several factors that are pertinent to the job opportunity. These might include the job conditions, working hours, employee welfare and the benefits scheme. The actual responsibilities must be clearly communicated within the description of job specifications. This is also vital both to the potential employee and the employer. This is because for an employee, one is able to determine whether they have the capacity to meet the job specifications or demands. The analysis is normally in terms of skills, knowledge as well as experience. Presently, leadership competencies have gained a lot of attention during the recruitment process. Basically, this is because organizations have increasingly recognized the importance of strategic leadership in management. Selection of the potential employees must follow an open and comprehensible procedure (ASWATHAPPA 2005, p. 58). Potential employees must be aware of all the matters pertinent to the organization. Apart from their knowledge and skills, they must also have and be able to depict transformational leadership skills. This enables them to have an upper hand during the selection process. The organizations must provide the potential recruits with the room to present their skills sufficiently. This is important in the selection process. The determination and selection of the most viable candidates must follow a rational and fair approach. This aspect is vital in obtaining the employees with the required quality a nd skills. In addition, it helps to strengthen the organization’s public image and creates a strong brand (ARMSTRONG 2010, p. 35). Employers should observe the fact that just mere attraction does not help in the development of a strong workforce. However, capacity development, motivation and welfare considerations are critical factors of interest to the employees. Indeed, the recruitment process remains as an important initiative both to the employers and also to the potential workers. Utilization of the Talent Pipeline (CIPD 2006) by Organizations The increased competition for the limited available human resource has led to many adjustments. Presently, there is more focus on the development of potential talents amongst all employees. This initiative has lead to productive performance and increased efficiency within organizations. The concept of talent management has been given consideration from the stages of recruitment. Nurturing of employees’ capacities has become a definite role within most organizations (DEB 2005, p.5). The human resources department has particularly undertaken significant roles in ensuring that workers acquire the appropriate skills and experience. Observably, this is always commensurate with their talents. The present organizations require high level performers with great dedication to their obligations. The recruitment processes have been redefined to be more strategic. Evidently, there is application of quality management practices right from the recruitment stage within organizations. The basic objective of such innovative initiatives is to adequately and appropriately develop talented personnel (SCHIEMANN 2009, p. 36). Such personnel have the capacity to steer the organization towards innovation and effective performance. In order to obtain the required talent, organizations must endeavor to comprehensively address and communicate job specifications. Through this, a potential employee is able to match his or her intri nsic talents to those described for the job. Ideally, this forms the basic spring board for the recruitment process. Personally, I would prefer to work within an organization that values and nurtures talent. Through the recruitment process, I will be able to identify the most innovative organization that can nurture my intrinsic skills. Of course, I can achieve this through examination and analysis of their organizational policies, values as well as cultures. These have to be properly indicated within their advertisements. Generally, the importance of apprenticeship and capacity building during work processes cannot be underscored. Personally, I believe that proper remuneration is crucial for employees with explicit talents and competencies. My interests will fall for organizations that have portrayed their desire and values in employee welfare and career support. Various work processes and management issues are learnt and experienced while a person is already employed. Talent manag ement refers to the practice of applying interconnected personnel processes to offer an understandable benefit to an organization (GOLDSMITH CARTER 2010, p. 56). To build my talent, I expect an organization to value its human resources as the first internal and important stakeholders. In order to build and sustain my competency, skills and competitive edge, my employer must consider the various talent management initiatives. The organization must assess the skills they need in order to be successful in the future. These issues must be well defined within the organization’s strategic plans. These initiatives are vital because they assist the organization to identify the critical talent that they must outsource or hire. Ideal organizations have to source the appropriate talent from the necessary avenues. Generally, utilization of the appropriate media and recruitment mechanisms is vital in this process. In order to match my talents with the required skills, organizations must adequately perform a comprehensive job description. These should entail the capacities that are most needed. Once in the organization, I will expect to be treated with open-mindedness. Coupled with transformational leadership approach, this will help to enhance my innovative skills. Therefore, as an employee, I will have the room to develop novelty, enhance my skills and exercise my innate or acquired talents. This will help in boosting my talent. Motivation will enable me to compete constructively with other work mates within the organization. Lack of motivation undermines development of talent and leads to boredom within the workplaces (DEB 2005, p.20). Personally, I would prefer to work within a competitive and highly motivated work environment. This will help me advance my professional goals and also to harness my talents. The importance of behavior or character assessments during the recruitment stage cannot be undermined. In order to create a team of highly talented employees, the organization must integrate such approaches. Personally, working within competitive and highly talented teams creates a challenging environment. This is appropriate for positive development of an individual’s talent. Free and social working environment that is more liberalized will enhance my talent and skills. A high quality orientation into the place of work including organizational cultures and corporate beliefs would help in initiating positive talent (SHUKLA 2009, p. 19). Generally, the pace and level of quality laid for me during the first appointment within the organization is vital. This is because it would help me in defining the necessary skills and appropriate talent that I would exercise in my new job. Additionally, the orientation will provide me with critical organizational requirements pertinent for my new role. In order to familiarize adequately with the organizational environment and requirements, adequate transition will be necessary. With proper guidan ce from the experienced staff, I will be able to master the policy requirements and various procedures within the organization. This is an important initial step in developing a positive relationship with the organizational environment. Apart from the academic qualifications, the experience and other trainings received during the actual practice are important. This is, particularly, for career development. To enhance my talent, I must be engaged in induction as well as capacity building programmes within the organization. The human resources department is crucially responsible for human capital development (GOLDSMITH CARTER 2010, p. 61). Personal involvement with the managers, including the line and top managers will help in developing my competency and communication skills. Participatory leadership approach enhances the employees’ capacities to engage in positive problem resolution initiatives. Through engagement in collective brain storming, I will develop the potential fo r solving challenges within an organizational setting. Furthermore, such initiatives can also assist me to enhance my conflict resolution skills. There is an increasing realization that high wages and remuneration packages might not necessarily translate into effective performance (SHUKLA 2009, p. 45). Analytically, this also has minimal role in enhancing the workers’ talents. As recognized by most employees, the most fundamental factor is the ability to provide an adequate working environment. Working in an organization with a positive culture towards employee development is good. Personally, I believe that an organization that values collective performance and supports team work is appropriate for talent development. People learn to develop their interpersonal and social skills. Apart from this, they appreciate the value of team work and endeavor to enable the organization meet its collective goals. In order to effectively build my talent, the organization’s intrinsi c beliefs, cultures and values must resonate appropriately with my career and individual objectives. Personally, I would feel more motivated to deliver and enhance my skills within supportive and comfortable environments. My immediate manager must be skilled with good leadership capacities. This will help in the process of problem reporting and solution. Apart from this, positive leadership will be vital for the development of an individual’s talent. Effective recognition and reward of excellently performing employees within an organization is a critical mechanism (SILZER DOWELL 2010, p. 87). This is because it helps in the development of talent. Personally, I would feel motivated and agitated to continue working hard if my excellent performance was recognized by the management. Such initiatives may help to foster positive competition amongst the workers. Consequently, this helps to increase the general organization’s output. My engagement within all decision making p rocesses in the organization would impart a positive attribute in me. This is because as an employee, I am able to feel engaged and valued within the organization. Therefore, I have the capacity to fully exercise my potential attributes and talents within the organization. This helps to nurture and shape my skills and talents continuously. The designated duty must fit with my skills, capacity and experience. This should also be extended to the larger work environment. Generally, an accommodative workplace environment enables individuals to feel free and share their knowledge and skills. Other organizational services that are not part of the work processes are critical. This might include provision of services for sporting. Engagement in such activities increases the level of cohesion and integration amongst the members of the organization or team. Apart from this, people are able to advance other talents such as the sporting skills. Generally, employees would prefer to serve in an o rganization with unique recreation facilities and services (SHUKLA 2009, p. 61). Another vital factor that enhances the level of employee talent is team building. Involvement in team building activities help to enhance and individual’s leadership competencies. Workers are more likely to shape their management and leadership talents when they interact and engage in team building. An organization must consider the effective kind of development that will enable me to attain my personal and the collective organizational demands. The role of development in enhancing talent management cannot be underestimated. Employee development can be done through continuous trainings, capacity building and apprenticeship. The competencies that one must consider are variable. Some of these might include the knowledge, the appropriate skills, behavior and positive attitude (GOLDSMITH CARTER 2010, p. 90). Thus, organizations must be able to conduct an assessment of their worker’s competenc y and profile. This intervention would help to identify the areas of deficiencies causing the observed malfunctions within an organization. An effective organizational system will not allow any employee to harbor a deviant attribute. I would be personally attracted to those organizations that are able to establish opportunities necessary for growth. This might be conducted through diverse processes. Some may include trainings, engagement within programmes, and teamwork. Job shadowing and rotation might also include other important processes of talent development. Continuous monitoring and performance appraisals are key interventions that help in the development of employee talent. Through these mechanisms, the management has the capacity to assess employee progress. They are also pertinent steps during needs assessment by the human resources department. Through performance appraisal, the department is able to note the disparities and areas that require improvement. Any training must resonate with the organizational policies and objectives. As an employee, I appreciate the impact that mentoring has on a person’s career. Through active mentoring, I will be able to set my career goals and appropriately endeavor towards meeting them. Mentoring would also manipulate my perceptions and feelings towards the organizational values and commitment. The communication and feedback mechanisms are very critical components of active talent management (SCHIEMANN 2009, p. 78). Employees cannot comprehensively exercise their talents and skills within organizations that have broken communication and feedback systems. Additionally, there must be a stipulated system of identification and reward of talent. Personally, I would strive to increase my output if my unique talent was recognized through promotion by the management. Promotion of excellently performing workers is an effective way of building talent within organizations. I must be engaged in establishing personal perfo rmance agreements and goals. This will ensure my fidelity and commitment to the general organizational goals and objectives. In achieving this aspect, the human resources department and the line managers have a potential role to play. Agreements are important because they set out the required deliverables (SILZER DOWELL 2010, p. 97). Furthermore, they establish the appropriate standards and actions that are necessary in times of failure. This concept is important because it increases the level of accountability and responsibility in individuals. In the present competitive organizational environment, performance contracting is becoming increasingly appropriate. Conclusively, the importance of talent management remains eminent within all organizations. Nurturing this talent is a critical initiative that must be undertaken by the management. This must be well articulated within the organization’s mission and vision statements. Potential recruits must be able to access such vita l information within the job advertisements. It is also appropriate to recognize the important role of strategic management in the recruitment and talent management processes. Lastly, it is crucial to note that effective recruitment processes form the basic spring board for successful talent management. List of References ARMSTRONG, M 2010, Armstrong’s Essential Human Resource Management Practice a Guide to People Management, Kogan Page, London. ASWATHAPPA, K 2005, Human resource and personnel management: text and cases, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi. CATANO, M 2009, Recruitment and selection in Canada, Nelson Education, Toronto. COOPER, D ROBERTSON, T 2001, Recruitment and selection: a framework for success, Thomson Learning, London. DALE, M DALE, M 2003, A manager’s guide to recruitment and selection, Kogan Page, London. DEB, T 2005, A conceptual approach to strategic talent management, Indus Pub, New Delhi. GOLDSMITH, M CARTER, L 2010, Best practices in talent mana gement: how the world’s leading corporations manage, develop, and retain top talent, John Wiley Sons, San Francisco, CA. SCHIEMANN, W 2009, Reinventing talent management how to maximize performance in the new marketplace, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. SHUKLA, R 2009, Talent management: process of developing and integrating skilled workers, Global India Publications, New Delhi. SILZER, F DOWELL, E 2010, Strategy driven talent management a leadership imperative, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA. This essay on Procedures of the Recruitment Process was written and submitted by user Karis Hendricks to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Of Mice And Men - Hopes And Dreams Essays - English-language Films

Of Mice And Men - Hopes And Dreams Essays - English-language Films Of Mice And Men - Hopes And Dreams ofmiceandmenthesis Hopes and dreams are both the fuel and fire in Of Mice and Men. Stienbeck uses these to thicken the plot and make the reader take large interest into the characters outcomes. George and Lennie have a dream. Somedaywere gonna get the jack together and were gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an a cow and some pigs. [George, p. 15] Being lowly ranch hands, they dream of a better life, where they dont work for anyone but themselves. George, the much smarter one of the two, is quite optimistic about it. It seems that he has already talked with someone about buying his or her land. Lennie, the mentally retarded brute, is childly amused of the dream. He loves soft things, and touching them; and when George tells of the rabbits they will have on the farm, Lennie shivers in joy. Candy is a much older man, who has lost his hand. He isnt worth as much to the ranchs employer as the other men, so he fears unemployment. He too dreams of a better life. One day, in the bunkhouse, he overhears George and Lennie talking about their future plans. You know a place like that? [Candy, p. 59] George immediately grows suspicious of the man, defending the deal. Candy explains that he hasnt much time left before hes canned and he has no place to go. Candy offers a large sum of money to the two, and asks only to live there until he dies. George accepts and Candy is grateful. Went out to the Riverside Dance Palace his this guy. He said he worked for the pitchers, he said I was a natural, he was gonna put me in a movie [Curlys wife, p. 89] Curlys wife, the symbol of temptation in the novel, has dreams of her own. She wanted badly to become an actress, or work in show business. But, because of a cruel mother, she never met those dreams. Instead, she married Curly, who is a possessive pretty boy, and she is unhappy. Hopes and dreams serve as the main plot. With the loneliness of the setting and situation of the characters in the story, the dreams are quite practical and obtainable. Bibliography Of Mice and Men, John Stienbeck

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Flowering Chanticleer Callery Pear Tree

The Flowering Chanticleer Callery Pear Tree The Chanticleer Callery Pear was selected as the Urban Tree of the Year in 2005 by trade arborist magazine City Trees  for its unique combination of resistance to blight and limb breakage, bright foliage, and great form. Compared to some of the pears relatives like the commonly planted Bradford pear tree, the Chanticleer Pears limb strength and strong branching make for a more reliable urban plant as its unlikely to require city maintenance like limb clean-up or installing reinforcing poles to keep the trees from breaking.  The tree also produces small white flowers in the spring, and its leaves turn a rich, plum color tinged with claret in the fall, making it a popular  fall foliage  plant. The Chanticleer Pear was first discovered during the 1950s on the streets in Cleveland, Ohio, and noted for its desirable characteristics. The tree was commercially introduced in 1965 by the famous Scanlon Nursery, which first called it the Chanticleer Pear. It has until recently been one of the most recommended trees suggested by municipal arborists.   The Flowering Pear Pyrusis is the botanical name for all pears, most of which are valued for their blossoms and delicious fruits and cultivated commercially throughout much of the U.S. and Canada; however, Callery Flowering Pears do not, however, produce an edible fruit.   Pears can be grown throughout the temperate regions where winters are not too severe and there is adequate moisture, but pears do not survive where temperatures fall lower than 20 F below zero (-28 C). In the warm and humid southern states, planting a pear should be limited to blight-resistant varieties such as many of the Callery Pear varieties. The variety named Chanticleer is a mostly ornamental tree that reaches a height ranging from 30 to 50 feet that can withstand pollution and be grown along roads due to their ability to process higher levels of car exhaust. In the spring, clusters of 1-inch white flowers cover the tree, and pea-sized, inedible fruits follow the flowers; in the fall,  the leaves of this tree turn shiny dark red to scarlet. Unique Features of Chanticleer Pear Trees Mark Burstyn/Getty Images The Chanticleer Pear is an upright-pyramidal tree that is much narrower than other ornamental pears, making it a valuable addition to landscapes where lateral space to spread is limited. It has attractive flowers, foliage, and fall color, and the bark is at first smooth with numerous lenticels, light brown to reddish-brown, then later turning grayish brown with shallow furrows. The Chanticleer Pear is less susceptible to early freezes than other pears, very adaptable to many different soils, and resistant to fireblight, and tolerates drought, heat, cold, and pollution, though it cannot survive in dry, waterlogged, or alkaline soil. Chanticleers should be grown in a location with full sun exposure and do require pruning and trimming in the winter or early spring for optimal growth. Because of its shape and branching structure, the crown is less prone to branch breakage with heavy winter snow.   Arthur Plotnik, in The Urban Tree Book, suggests the Chanticleer cultivar is one of the most is disease resistant, exceptionally cold-hardy, heavily flowered, and richly colored in autumn; reportedly, it even offers a few bonus flowers in fall. The Pear's Downside Some cultivars of the Callery Pear, usually the newer varieties, have the ability to grow fruit that produces viable seed. However, there are many states that are now dealing with non-native species invading their environments. According to Invasives Invasive and Exotic Trees list, states now dealing with escaped invasive pears include Illinois, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina. Many cultivars are generally unable to produce fertile seeds when self-pollinated or cross-pollinated with another tree of the same cultivar. However, if different cultivars of Callery Pears are grown within insect-pollination distance, about 300  feet, they can produce fertile seeds that can sprout and establish wherever they are dispersed. Another primary concern for this variety of pear tree is that Callery Pears in full bloom produce an undesirable odor. Horticulturist Dr. Michael Durr calls the smell malodorous but gives the tree high marks for beauty in landscape design.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Revolt of 1857 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Revolt of 1857 - Essay Example On 10 May in 1857, the sepoys matched to Delhi with the intention of taking control over the city. The 1857 revolt introduced numerous changes in India as will be highlighted in this paper. In addition, the paper will give attention to the causes of the revolt, its representation in British sources, and Chowdhury view of how photography represented the revolt. The British rule in India had established economic policies that were unfavorable to the Indians. Notably, the colonialists focused on exploiting the natural resources available in India. The exploitation of the resources in India by the colonialists only served to reap India off its stability in trade and industry. Over time, the British rule had transformed India into a colonial economy that served the interest of the British. In accordance with the existing economic policy, the British ruler exported resource to London. The British had a cheaper way of supporting their industries. The export of India’s resources to London served to increase the poverty levels in India. Many of the Indians relied on trade and industry in an effort to earn a living. However, the British colonial rule had taken over the industry, leaving many Indians jobless. The British economic policies demanded the Indian peasants to pay high revenues. Demanding high revenues from the peasants served to br ing down the agrarian sector. There was an increasing pressure for the peasants to register increased production. Despite their increased production, the Indian peasants did not benefit. The landowners in India faced the compulsion of paying a specified amount to the British government. If the landowners failed to meet the requirements, the British colonial rule dispossessed them of their property. Therefore, economic causes were a primary trigger of the 1857 revolt. As highlighted above, the British colonial rule imposed every taxation and